Monday, March 9, 2015
Easy Way to Get Coreboot
Replacing the proprietary BIOS firmware on most computers is a process that often can be frustrating. It's possible that your computer could be rendered unuseable in the process. Back in 2010 I managed to get coreboot working on the Gigabyte GA-6BCX motherboard and although the process went fairly smoothly it did consume a fair bit of time. Fortunately we now have an inexpensive way of obtaining a ready to go coreboot computer.
There are sites that now offer Thinkpad X60, T60 and X200 series laptops with coreboot installed, although it seems that they are often out of stock. The simplest alternative to obtain coreboot is to buy a chromebook or a chromebox which are readily available from most computer stores.
If you wish to replace ChromeOS with a Linux distribution you should read the info here.
I had an occasion to use a Chromebook and I thought the keyboard was rather cheap so I recommend getting a Chromebox and supplying it with a good quality keyboard. The ASUS CHROMEBOX-M115U has an Intel Celeron 2955U Processor, 2GB DDR3 memory, 16G SSD for storage and Intel HD Graphics and sells for as low as $200 Canadian.
There is also a Coreboot on Chromebooks community here.
Saturday, February 21, 2015
AntiX Linux: A Brief Review
Certain factors like systemd are polarizing the Linux community. It seems that either you like it or you hate it. Some of the Debian developers are getting nervous and so a fork of Debian called Devuan has been announced.
I'm always looking at other distros that emphasize compactness and the ability to run on old hardware. I was also intrigued by the Debian controversy with systemd so when I saw AntiX 13.2 was based on Debian Wheezy I had to give it a try. AntiX comes on a single CD so installing it was easy enough.
Now the hardware used to test AntiX was an old IBM R30 Thinkpad with 1 gigabyte of memory. It ran fairly well on this hardware, good enough to run fbreader and iceweasel. It had a lot of good attributes like fast boot speed, and it used icewm which I was already familiar with (fluxbox and JWM were also available). It also comes with libreoffice and some multimedia software. It has a fairly modern kernel: 3.7.10.
As for the systemd issue, yes Debian Wheezy has systemd on it, so this version of AntiX has it as well. All you need to do to remove it is:
apt-get remove systemd
What could be simpler? Things get a bit murkier with future releases like Jessie which will have systemd on it by default.
I don't want to get into empty histrionics about systemd. I don't like it because I feel it's too big a departure from Unix principles. People are worried that systemd is "taking over" but so far that's not really the case. If you don't like systemd try AntiX, Slackware or one of its derivatives, or if you like a more traditional Unix try one of the BSDs.
Tuesday, January 20, 2015
The time has come to talk about a different kind of pollution. I'm not talking about the pollution that is created by manufacturing computers. This time I'm talking about pollution of the mind.
Mind pollution has permeated the internet. Computer articles are mostly written from the point of view of a person who uses Microsoft products. The assumption is that everyone uses Microsoft Windows and Windows software. To be fair there are a few OSX and Linux articles. Heaven help you if you use something really unusual like Plan 9 or HaikuOS. I can only assume those folks have a lot of patience and a strong will.
When I was in high school Microsoft Windows did not exist and we just used what was available at the time which was a Commodore PET. For the folks too young to remember a Commodore PET was an 8-bit computer with a 6502 CPU and 32 kilobytes of memory. This was in the early 1980's. So my perspective is different. Moving from one computer ecosystem to another is relatively easy since I've done it so often. I naturally think in more abstract terms such as "software presentation program" rather than thinking of "PowerPoint".
Back then no one would have thought of using a specific software package for word-processing. You either used a dedicated machine that only did word processing or you went to the computer store to find some software that would run on the computer you owned. Since everything was so new no one had any preconceptions about which software package was the "best". One usually went along with what their schools used, e.g. if your school happened to use a Commodore computer you probably would have bought a Commodore computer.
Even in the mid-90s when people were running to the mall to buy Windows 95 the computer articles on the net didn't have the overbearing assumption that you owned a Windows box and now you type "format c: /s" or "ipconfig" (it was ifconfig in the Unix world since 1982). Or my personal favourite "Get your friends off XP" which initially sounds good until you realize the article is about installing Windows 8.1 on your computer.
That's not to say there aren't articles about Linux and BSD, there's lots of them. And even with articles about Firefox there's enough similarities between the Windows and Linux versions that one can often extract useful information from them. I suppose one could still complain about the assumption that everyone uses Firefox.
It's really all about mind share. You might think "Microsoft doesn't control me" but what about the computing masses? What about the schools and the governments and the banks? We should have platform independence and people should be able to do their online activities with the platform of their choice. The media should NOT assume that all their viewers use Microsoft software because that is certainly not the case.
Mostly I can use my Linux and BSD machines to do everything I want to do. There are a few edge cases where it takes quite a lot of effort to do certain things, but for the most part there are no serious problems. Once one walks into a computer store it reaffirms that you're in the Windows World. There are Microsoft stores now but I haven't bothered checking them out as there's just nothing there for me.
I'd like to think that with the internet we have bypassed rigid and inflexible thinking as people are free to tap into any part of the web. Still, it behooves journalists and teachers to write about computer topics in a platform independent way to the greatest possible degree. If one must write about things which are platform dependent they should at least make it immediately clear that their article is platform dependent in the article's title. It is the general concepts and the broad interchange of information that is the most important thing.
Friday, January 2, 2015
BSD Community is Too Insular
First of all let me say I really like BSD. I enjoy studying it's history which extends back to 1978 when it was a mere add-on to Bell Labs Unix version 6. The longest uptime I've ever had on a computer was with OpenBSD. It's a fine piece of work.
On the other hand when I look at the BSD community I see a less than friendly environment. It is rather like a gated community where you need to be invited in. Often when one goes to BSD forums one gets some mysterious error message and no access. IRC channels related to BSD are also invite only.
When I re-entered the Linux community in 2003 there was a strong feeling I was less than welcome. As an old Xenix user I thought I would be treated well enough, instead I was barely tolerated. Eventually I felt I was accepted, at least to a certain degree (I also developed a tougher skin). Some of the rudeness seemed to be part and parcel to being online. Manners on the internet have never been very good, but lately things have really deteriorated.
In the case of the BSD community things really do need some improvement. While in the Linux world it's true that people are treated with faint rudeness and a certain amount of condescension, it's still preferable to being utterly locked out of the BSD community. One wonders what rites of initiation are necessary to be accepted into the BSD world and if it's worth the trouble.
I consider the various BSDs to be closer to the original Bell Labs Unix. In some ways I prefer the BSD way of doing things. It's good that we have a varied ecosystem of software. Nevertheless the BSD community really needs to try to become more welcoming to newcomers. This is also true of the Linux community to a lesser degree.
The original programmers of Bell Labs Unix were undoubtedly writing an operating system for other programmers. Programmers are not the friendliest group of people in the world and sometimes this can be very discouraging for young people who are getting used to Unix type operating systems for the first time. An extra effort needs to be made for the BSD and Linux communities to be more welcoming and less insular.
Sunday, December 7, 2014
Order Linux Discs
Avoid Systemd by trying AntiX, Slackware or OpenBSD.
For older computers try Puppy Linux.
Buy Linux and BSD Discs
Wednesday, November 19, 2014
Thoughts on Systemd
First a short description of systemd:
Systemd is a collection of system management daemons, libraries, and utilities designed for Linux.
One of the main reasons why some folks don't like systemd is it stores logs in a binary format. This goes against the Unix philosophy of storing data in flat text files. The old method was sysvinit which is described here:
Of course we can go further back, all the way back to Research Unix v5 from 1974:
BSD init was, prior to 4.3BSD, the same as Research UNIX's init and after that things
diverged so there was a BSD and AT&T SysV way of running init. In the ancient days
of Unix v5 there were no runlevels. Unix v5 simply ran /etc/rc in the Thompson shell and
then launched getty.
Some folks say that systemd is the svchost.exe of Linux, saying it is essentially making
Linux more like Microsoft Windows. It is a monolithic entity that hides what's happening
behind the scenes. It stomps on the Unix Philosophy (again) of doing one thing and
doing it well. With systemd we have one large Swiss army knife of a tool that isn't
very good at anything in particular.
For people who want a modern distro that stays much closer to the original Unix Philosophy
we have the BSDs: NetBSD, FreeBSD and OpenBSD. Another solution would be to fork an
existing Linux distro into sysintv and systemd versions but that is hardly ideal.
I'm not sure which Linux distros will avoid systemd in the future as it seems many
of them are jumping on the systemd bandwagon. Slackware appears to be resisting the
systemd tide and "Patrick has stated he intends to stick to the BSD-stylized SysVInit design."
Another solution to this problem is to do what I do, i.e. to use an older Linux distro
that still uses sysvinit and upgrade it as necessary. This method isn't very popular but
there are many retro-computing specialists who use older versions of Linux and Research
Unix. Some distros we use include FC1, 2.11BSD and Unix v5,v6 and v7. Of course I do
expect there to be more forks of distros appearing in the future. There's just too many
different opinions on how things should be done in the Linux community.
Saturday, October 25, 2014
Using Older Software and Hardware
If we look at the history of Unix we can see that the kernel, libraries and userland programs have all increased in size as time passes. Here is a summary of the sizes of libc.a, the main library for C language:
Unix version 2 from 1972: 31 functions and 5,242 bytes
Unix version 5 from 1974: 85 functions and 21,542 bytes
Unix version 6 from 1975: 74 functions and 22,042 bytes
(note that with v6 the math functions were moved to liba.a)
Unix version 7 from 1979: 154 functions, and 77,690 bytes
2.11BSD from 1992: 347 functions, 233,788 bytes
Slackware Linux 4.0 from 1999: libc.so.5.44 has 580,816 bytes
Vector Linux Classic from 2007: 1,425 functions and 2,979,634 bytes
Similarly we can see that basic commands like ps for process status have also increased in size:
ps for Unix v5: 2,660 bytes
ps for modern linux: 63,948 bytes (a 24-fold increase!)
One could easily wonder "at what point does the feature set of a given part of an operating system reach completion"? It seems we never reach that point. On the other hand we don't necessarily have to continually upgrade our operating systems. We could reach back into the past and pick an older starting point and upgrade that distro as needed.
There has been some good work done to counter the bloat. Tiny Core Linux does a reasonably good job of being lean and mean. It isn't what I would call low memory use though, it still needs at least 46 MB of RAM (compare this to Unix v5 which can run easily in 256K of ram).
Others will argue that as the feature set of an operating system increases it is inevitable that its size will also increase. That is true but I can't help wonder exactly why libc.a has to be almost 3 megabytes in size. There has been work done to make a leaner libc with the MUSL project. MUSL libc.a is a mere 1.6 megabytes which is significantly smaller.
What else could one do to improve the ever increasing bloat of their operating systems? Well, you could roll your own software distribution or even write your own operating system. You could pick a distro based which uses the MUSL version of libc, e.g. Snowflake and Sabotage.
Unfortunately even the so called light distros seem bloated to me. The true champion of lightweight distros is Basic Linux 3.5 which is based on Slackware 3.5 from 1999. It can run within 16 megs of memory and it can use Slackware 4.0 packages. There are still folks that use it on older hardware. Of course we can rule out Firefox or Chrome or most other modern web browsers while constrained with such a severe memory limit, although we can still use text based web browsers like lynx.
Using a truly ancient operating system like Unix v5 would seem too restrictive to all but the most hard-core PDP-11 aficionados. We can safely assume that everybody would want an operating system that supports ethernet and TCP/IP. Also a working PDP-11 is a rarity and they wouldn't be efficient in terms of power use.
It seems to me that bloated operating systems go hand in hand with corporations who want to sell everyone endless updates of software and hardware. Computer users need to make a judgement call on just how often they want to upgrade and how much money they want to spend. I've already reached the point of upgrade fatigue and I'm putting most of my efforts into maintaining and repairing my existing computers. The truth of the matter is chip fabrication pollutes the world with caustic chemicals like Trichloroethylene. The endless production of plastic isn't doing our environment any good either.
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